Britain is only a small country, but every part is different. Scotland is a land of mountains, lakes and romantic castles. The winters are cold, with plenty of snow, but the summers are often warm and sunny. Deer live in the hills, and the rivers are full of salmon. Edinburgh, Scotland's capital, is very beautiful. The heart of the city is the castle, where the kings of Scotland lived for centuries. Edinburgh has a busy cultural life. Every year, in August, the International Festival takes place. Musicians, actors and singers come from all over the world and thousands of visitors fill the city. In the evening, the opera house, the theatres and concert halls are full. In cafes and pubs, small groups sing, act and read poetry. The castle is at its best in Festival time. Every night there is a magnificent military "Tattoo". Highland soldiers wearing "kilts" play the bagpipes and march to the music. Tartans, the patterns of the kilts, have an interesting history. Since the fifteenth century, each Scottish family (or 'clan') has worn its own tartan as a kind of badge. It was a useful way of recognizing people, especially in times of war. Many tartans date only from the nineteenth century, but some of the old patterns still exist. "Dress" tartans, worn on special occasions, have light, bright colours. Hunting tartans are usually green, blue, or brown.
Wales is a country of high mountains and pretty valleys. But Wales has plenty of industry, too. There are many factories and coal mines there. The people of Wales are very musical. Every year they have a festival of Welsh music and poetry called an "Eisteddfod".
A hundred years ago the north of England was the industrial heart of the country. The old factories have gone now and the workers have to look for jobs in the new "high-tech" industries. The centre of England (the "Midlands") is also an important industrial area, especially near the huge cities of Coventry and Birmingham, the centre of car industry. The west of England is a rich farming country. It produces milk, cream, butter, cheese and apples.
Northern Island is beautiful too. In the warm, wet climate much of the land is farming.
Britain is an island and there is no place to be too far from the sea Some of the coast, especially in the west, is wild and rocky, with small, sandy beaches, and romantic harbours.
castle - замок
deer - олень
Edinburgh - Эдинбург
bagpipe - волынка
tattoo - барабанная дробь
tartan - шотландский плед
salmon - лосось
"high-tech" industries - отрасли высоких технологий
cathedral - собор
coal mines - угольные шахты
Eisteddfod - айстедвод, состязание бардов (ежегодный фестиваль в Уэльсе)
beach - берег
harbour - гавань
1. What can be found there in Scotland?
2. What is the heart of Edinburgh?
3. What is annually held in Edinburgh?
4. How is the Festival observed?
5. What are tartans? When are they used?
6. What is England famous for?
7. What is Wales noted for?
8. What is said about Northern Ireland?